Which one of the following is the best example of implicit bias?


Instructions: Please read every question carefully. This exam should take between two and three hours to complete.


  1. Part I

Please select only ONE correct answer from the following list (approx. 2 minutes each.)

  1. Which one of the following is the best example of implicit bias?
    1. Teacher requires parents of a black student who is visibly disheveled to come to teacher-parent conference
    2. FBI director refers to protesters in Baltimore as “thugs.”
    3. Police officer uses taser gun on a victim with his hands up
    4. White students are unwilling to invite black classmate to Bar Mitvah
    5. A bank fails to lend in African-American neighborhood
  2. Which of the following circumstances is LEAST likely to lead to forced displacement or statelessness among ethnic minority groups?
    1. Poor local governance
    2. Regional economic disparities
    3. Sharing of resources between rural areas
    4. Revising immigration laws
    5. Power sharing among ethnic groups
  1. Which one of the following could be thought of as a “colorblind” approach to achieving economic justice?
    1. working to dismantle concentrated poverty in multi-racial neighborhoods
    2. monitoring the implementation of the Fair Housing Act in low-income African-American neighborhoods
    3. bringing civil rights litigation on behalf of persons who inherited FHA loans with unfavorable terms
    4. Sheff v. O’Neil case
  1. Which one was NOT a strategy for racial justice employed South African leaders and activists in the period leading up to the end of Apartheid?
    1. Reclaiming local/indigenous education
    2. Integrating white regions of South Africa
    3. civil disobedience
    4. counter-insurgency
    5. negotiating with the Apartheid regime
  1. Which one of the following characteristics of vulnerable African-American communities in New Orleans would help make the strongest civil/human rights case?
    1. Geographic proximity to storm surges
    2. Lower levels of attention or aid in the evacuation process
    3. Intergenerational poverty
    4. Urban density
    5. Failure to assist small businesses
  2. Which of the following is a principle of environmental justice that has been recognized by local governments?
    1. the right to reject gentrification in low-income communities
    2. the right to cultural and political self-determination
    3. the right to participate as equal partners at every level of decision-making, including needs assessment, planning, implementation, enforcement and evaluation
    4. the right to a percentage of the revenue from development projects
    5. none of the above
  1. Part II

Instructions: Please read every question carefully, writing as much as possible and giving examples. (approx. 5 min each)

  1. Please explain how the concepts of colorblindness, critical race theory, and disparate impact theory are related.
  1. Human rights campaigns use the sway of public opinion, and often mobilize the international community in support of the implementation of treaties. What are some of the challenges to implementing these victories in local communities? Please refer to the Popovic reading from the Mock Trial folder for Louisiana.
  1. Transitional justice involves a number of alternative views on justice, and promotes non-traditional strategies for achieving justice. How do transitional justice approaches emphasize political processes as opposed to legal standards? Please refer to Martha Minnow, Alexander Boraine, and/or the Truth Commission Report.
  1. Briefly describe one or two the ideological, social, and/or political trends of the 1980’s and 1990’s that led to the mass incarceration phenomenon.
  1. Please list three of the advocacy tactics used by young activists in Greensboro. Which one of these tactics do you think was the most effective and why?
  1. Briefly describe the barriers to effective lawyering for criminal justice lawyers working in any Africana community.
  • Part III

Please choose TWO of the following three essay questions. Write two essays of approximately 500 words (approx. 2 single spaced pages if typed) in response to each question. In both of your essays, please make sure to cite the readings wherever you can; otherwise you may not receive full credit for your response. (45 min to 1 hr each.)

  1. Due to class divides between communities of color and many white Americans and a lack of equal opportunity, the legacies of the “separate but equal” system remains. Please make a human rights argument for reparations for the community of Ferguson. Describe a specific issue and a human rights advocacy strategy for achieving reparations (also briefly explain how the reparations funds would be allocated, i.e., who would actually receive funds.) Please refer to class discussion and readings relating to economic / social disparities in black communities.
  1. In the State of Utopia, all law enforcement personnel (e.g., police, prisons, and judges) are held fully accountable for their interactions with the citizens, and their decisions. What legal/legislative frameworks have been established to make this possible? How did the State of Utopia involve its citizens in establishing these standards? Are Utopia’s criminal justice laws punitive or deterrent? How does its approach differ from cases and communities discussed in class?
  1. Based on our readings and the Mock Trial, please discuss the pros and cons of litigation for minority communities who have been denied the right to employment or education by so-called “neutral” laws. In your discussion, please specifically address applicable definitions of “legal redress” as well as the challenges to organizing politically in and across communities of color.

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