In Kenya, decentralization of power or the devolution has proposed a significant mechanism that addresses the consequences of oil exploitation and human rights protection. On the other hand, the presence of the Multinational companies producing oil has been termed as the major causes of human rights violations as a result of oil exploitation. Such companies violate different human rights while gaining an advantage from the oil extraction.
Oil extraction in developing countries can become a curse rather than a blessing. Therefore, this research focuses on different perspectives that have resulted to violation of human rights as result of oil exploitation. The overall research is divided into two components that include, the direct human rights violation by oil companies and indirect human rights violation as result of ineffectiveness of the laws and regulations encompassing oil exploitations and protection of human rights.
This study is developed to understand the mechanisms in which oil exploitation has enhanced to violation of human rights in different communities in Kenya. The research is not only concerned at examining the oil exploitation mechanisms but puts into accounts the aspects that enhance human rights violation resulting from oil extraction. Human rights have been violated in various ways for instance, oil spills that cause environmental degradation leading to poor living conditions, displacement of people, and poverty. Additionally, the government fails to include effective policies that address the notion of human rights protection by the oil production companies. In addition to this, human rights venerable to oil exploitation is discussed and further the legal framework that includes, policies or Acts developed locally and internationally in protecting the human rights will also be included.
There is a growing consensus in the literature field that the subject of oil as a resource has enhanced a significant paradox to the economy of developing countries to involve in its production. The increasing concerns are as result of oil exploitation and persistent nature of human rights violation experienced in many of the African countries. Violation of human rights as result of oil exploitation has enhanced to different aspects such as economic inequities and poverty as result of environmental impacts of oil exploitation. This means that oil exploration results to environmental scarcity hence violating human rights since such aspects such as water and land become scarce in supporting economic activities.
Exploitation of resources enhance to economic developments and growth for instance infrastructural developments and poverty reduction in a country. Despite of the positive effects enhanced by oil exploitation towards the economic growth in developing countries, there is reluctance on the negative impacts of oil exploitation on human rights. The government and oil producing companies have neglected the overall theme by failing to enact effective rules and regulation on the overall initiative. Although oil extraction leads to economic growth, it is significant to include different alternative consider the protection of human rights for instance implementation of policies governing human rights protection from oil exploitation.
Oil exploration enhances high revenues, provides job opportunities, enhances infrastructure hence boosting the economy of the country. Despite of all these significant aspects enhanced by resource exploitation, it is significant to understand the negative outputs of the resource exploitation for instance human rights violation and hence focus on the alternatives of reducing such insignificances.
The notion of oil exploitation and human rights violation develops three parties in the overall contests and include the host state or the government, multinational oil producing companies and the local communities. The Government and the Multinational oil companies are responsible on the revenue costs maximization of oil resources hence, leaving the local communities rights violated. In many cases, such as the LAKE Turkana and the Rift valley base region in Kenya that have been triggered with richness in oil production, human rights violation occur as result of exposing the communities to poverty, displacements and environmental degradation .
On the other hand, recent literature illustrate that oil resources in many of the African countries are faced with weak governance hence negatively impacts the sustainability, growth and stability of the countries hence human rights continuously increase being violated. Therefore, the overall research will focus on human rights violation as result of oil exploitation in Kenya
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