Discussion Questions: After reviewing elements of the threat from references both inside and outside the classroom, and the BIMCO video, what do you consider the most critical elements to successful port operations around the world? I define “successful” as the ability to establish and maintain a security regime across the port where information is shared, resources are pulled and the collective “security” of the participants is at the forefront. The best example of this type of approach is in the port of Boston and the port of Rotterdam. Please support your response with specifics regarding your choice of “element” and how it is applied within a port. Additionally, share your thoughts on the necessity of collaborations between port security and enforcement operations and what you believe is a primary threat to port facility operations?
2. Discuss the priorities detailed in the 2013 DNI Threat Assessment Report?
Articles for assignment:
Learning from Piracy: Future Challenges of Maritime Security Governance https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/23340460.2015.960170
The Impacts of Globalization on International Maritime Transport Activity: Past Trends and Future Perspectives http://www.oecd.org/greengrowth/greening-transport/41380820.pdf
Maritime Transport Strategy https://ec.europa.eu/transport/themes/strategies/2018_maritime_transport_strategy_en
Progress and Challenges 10 Years after the Maritime Transportation Security Act https://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-1009T
Instructions: Fully utilize the materials that have been provided to you in order to support your response. Your initial post should be at least 350 words. Please respond to at least two other students. Responses should be a minimum of 150 words and include direct questions. You may challenge, support or supplement another student’s answer using the terms, concepts and theories from the required readings. Also, do not be afraid to respectfully disagree where you feel appropriate; as this should be part of your analysis process at this academic level.
Forum posts are graded on timeliness, relevance, knowledge of the weekly readings, and the quality of original ideas. Sources utilized to support answers are to be cited in accordance with the APA writing style by providing a general parenthetical citation (reference the author, year and page number) within your post, as well as an adjoining reference list. Refer to grading rubric for additional details concerning grading criteria.
Student #1 Alex
Good afternoon fellow classmates,
Our direct question for the week is: After reviewing elements of the threat from references both inside and outside the classroom, and the BIMCO video, what do you consider the most critical elements to successful port operations around the world? I define “successful” as the ability to establish and maintain a security regime across the port where information is shared, resources are pulled and the collective “security” of the participants is at the forefront. The best example of this type of approach is in the port of Boston and the port of Rotterdam. Please support your response with specifics regarding your choice of “element” and how it is applied within a port.
After conducting our required reading for the week and watching the BIMCO video, hopefully I understand the question fully, as identifying a response to all security threats including the ones in the readings and videos. In my opinion the most critical elements are two-fold, one is effective port operation planning which includes training and assessments (threat, vulnerability, and risk). The other part is cooperation or convergence between private and federal security means. Starting with the first element, planning through training and assessments. I would say the assessments should be done first and with other agencies, which dips slightly into the reason for effective outside cooperation through communication. These assessments will highlight what threats effect the port, where the port is vulnerable to the threats, and what risks are worth taking in terms of security (Pate, Taylor, & Kubu, 2008). In conducting theses assessments, the port is provided with a pretty focused plan in how to proceed with security and what countermeasures need to be put in place. Additionally, this is where training comes into play, all members of the port, and especially the security personnel should be trained based on the capabilities of the threat and from most to least likely. For example, taking two mentioned threats from the BIMCO video (2017), if the security personnel are trained to combat mainly cyberthreats, while the most prominent threat is piracy, is this plan effective? I would venture to say no. I’m not saying ALL the focus should be on the most prominent threat. The training plan should be well rounded, but the personnel and means of security need to be well equipped to deal with any threat acknowledging the most prominent as such.
On to element two, according to The US Department of Transportation (1997), port authorities are encouraged and should advance ways of keeping constant communications, where up to date information can be exchanged and port security issues can be discussed. Also noting that “through this approach, the security programs of individual ports can be enlarged into a national alliance of many port security programs working cooperatively with all elements of the maritime industry.” Merging this element with the first I spoke about, coming up with joint training sessions between private and federal port security agencies could have great results in terms of cooperation, effective communication, understanding of roles and responsibilities, security gaps, and policy and procedure. Finally, through this constant communication the assessments previously talked about will be kept updated. Threats are constantly changing and new tactics could be devised on a daily basis. Effective communication between like agencies and intelligence reports will allows all ports to act accordingly keeping the maritime environment as safe as can be and ready to react to any threat. Assessing the effectiveness of all elements, in a controlled environment can be completed through field training exercises, where security cooperation, teamwork, measures, and actions can be put to the test based on a likely threatening scenario.
Noakes, G. & Hunter, G. (2017). BIMCO Maritime Security Report. Retrieved from
Pate, A., Taylor, B., & Kubu, B. (2008). Protecting America’s Ports: Promising. US Department of Justice. Retrieved from https://apus.intelluslearning.com/lti/#/document/1…
US Department of Transportation. (1997). PORT SECURITY: A National Planning Guide
Student #2 Rod
What do you consider the most critical elements to successful port operations around the world?
The most critical element to successful port operations are container overflow/overcrowding. With container ships connecting the world, lengthening the supply chain, and facilitating economic development in underprivileged countries. Because of this, the increase in use of containers has drastically increased enhancing efficiency and velocity, but in turn has created a breach in traditional security. It has been difficult through the years to keep up inspection of an ever increasing number of containers arriving daily (Leonard & Veronneau, 2015) and with ships spending less down time in port getting loaded and unloaded and more time transporting goods throughout the world, it is easy to see how this could pose a security threat. This meant that the last 14 years have been spent playing catch up and improving the efficiency of security protocol, security inspections, and moving from random searches to intelligence-based targeted searches. Today’s containers are more susceptible to theft, pilferage, and instruments to carry out attacks.
Additionally, share your thoughts on the necessity of collaborations between port security and enforcement operations and what you believe is a primary threat to port facility operations?
In order to provide effective, efficient, and timely support to a port during an incident, all parties involved need to be on the same sheet of music. When speaking of all parties involved, you must consider the role of those authorities and how they factor into the security equations. If an incident were to occur at a local port, port security authorities, local law enforcement, the Customs and Border Patrol (CBP) agency, and the Coast Guard could all have some form of role depending on the situation. With that being said for these cases, collaboration and the information sharing would be vital to overcoming the incident. Although these agencies would/could all have access to all rules, regulations, and standards, all of their training may be different and their automated peripherals that they use to share critical information may be different as well. They all will have to figure out how to bridge the gap when sharing that information in order to be successful. Most importantly, these same agencies must be able to create and maintain relationships that are fostered through collaboration, trust, and through agreements.
Discuss the priorities detailed in the 2013 DNI Threat Assessment Report?
The 2013 DNI Threat Assessment Report describes threats to nation. It is detailed in how and where these threats would impact the nation. For starters, Mr. James Clapper, the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) Agency opens up by describing two types of threats, global and regional.
In the global threats, he list cyber as the main concern followed by terrorism and transnational organized crime, WMD proliferation, counterintelligence, counterspace, natural resources (food, water, minerals, energy, and climate change), health and pandemic threats, and finally mass atrocities.
He then breaks down regional threats describing areas of the globe that could potentially pose a threat to the United States. Areas such as the Middle East, South Asia, Africa, East Asia, Russia and Eurasia, Latin America and Europe. Inside the regional threats section he goes on to describe what in these areas must be observed and how they would/will affect the U.S.. For example, in the Middle East and North Africa he describes three issues that will affect U.S. interests and they ungoverned spaces, economic hardships, and negative views of the United States. Inside each region, the report list specific countries and how they could potentially threaten the U.S.
Director of National Intelligence. (2013). 2013 DNI Threat Assessement Report .
Leonard, T., & Véronneau, S. (2015). Security Challenges in the United States Sea Ports: An Overview. Joint Transportation Security, Vol. 8(1), 41-49. doi:10.1007/s12198-015-0155-9