Discuss the competitors, future, and innovations with computing.The research paper should include the following sections. Discuss the competitors, future, and innovations with computing. Using the outline below:
Write a 7 page paper in APA format.
The research paper should include the following sections. Discuss the competitors, future, and innovations with computing. Using the outline below:
Introduction – (Thesis statement and Purpose of paper)
Background – Background and History on the concept
Discussion – Discuss current issues, innovation, and future use. Support the topic with any necessary sources. Be sure to include in-text citations.
Conclusion – Summary of main points
Theory in Action: IBM and the Attack of the Clones
In 1980, IBM was in a hurry to introduce a personal computer. When personal computers first began to emerge at the end of the 1970s, most of the major computer manufacturers considered it no more than a peculiar product for a hobbyist market. The idea that individuals would want personal computers on their desks seemed ludicrous. However, as total U.S. personal computer sales reached $1 billion, IBM began to worry that the personal computer market could actually turn out to be a significant computer market in which IBM had no share. To bring a personal computer to market quickly, IBM decided to use many off-the-shelf components from other vendors, including Intel’s 8088 microprocessor and Microsoft’s software. However, IBM was not worried about imitators because IBM’s proprietary basic input/output system (BIOS), the computer code that linked the computer’s hardware to its software, was protected by copyright. While other firms could copy the BIOS code, doing so would violate IBM’s copyright and incur the legendary wrath of IBM’s legal team. However, getting around IBM’s copyright turned out not to be difficult. Copyright protected the written lines of code, but not the functions those codes produced. Compaq was able to reverse-engineer the BIOS in a matter of months without violating IBM’s copyright. First, a team of Compaq programmers documented every function the IBM computer would perform in response to a given command, without recording the code that performed the function. This list of functions was then given to another team of “virgin” programmers (programmers who were able to prove that they had never been exposed to IBM’s BIOS code).a These programmers went through the list of functions and wrote code to create identical functions. The result was a new BIOS that acted just like an IBM BIOS but did not violate its copyright. Compaq sold a record-breaking 47,000 IBM-compatible computers in its first year, and other clones were quick to follow.
a R. Cringely, Accidental Empires (New York: HarperCollins, 1992).
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