“Ancient Communications in the Americas” 25 Annotated Bibliography

I would like you to do some research about the origins of “expression” or the “communications media” in the Americas, specifically, our ancient American or indigenous times. Often, we know so much about speech practices in colonial, modern, and post-modern Europe and North America, but we know little if anything about our Native American communications.

Please search online, that is, U.S. libraries or data databases in the Internet and, hopwefully, websites abroad (mainly Europe and/or Latin American and the Caribbean), and find references about publications on this subject: “Ancient Communications in the Americas” (North, South, or Central America and the Caribbean.

The goal is to find bibliographical citations about means of expression, communication technologies, or media practices, even “freedom” or “censorship” in the Americas before the arrival of Christopher Columbus to the New World (1492).

Provide 25 references (books/textbooks, encyclopedias, government/private reports, academic/journal/newspaper/ magazine articles, videos/multimedia/film productions, or any other source or digital platform), listed according to the American Psychological Association (APA) Citation Style.

The format is as follows:

  • Type the 25 references in single-space lines, using Times New Roman script, 12 point. However, use double-space to separate in between references.
  • Use the American Psychological Association (APA) Citation Style to type the bibliographic references. You can find a summary of APA in OWL (Purdue University). Go to:


General Format // Purdue Writing Lab


Abstract. Begin a new page. Your abstract page should already include the page header (described above). On the first line of the abstract page, center the word “Abstract” (no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation marks).

  • Make a brief annotation or an one-line comment about the content of each citation.

Number of pages don’t matter as long as work is completed perfectly


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