All of the following are important criteria when making causal inferences except: [ONE POINT] a. Consistency with existing knowledge

All of the following are important criteria when making causal inferences except: [ONE POINT]
a. Consistency with existing knowledge

b. Dose-response relationship
c. Predictive value
d. Strength of association
e. Consistency of association in several studies

2. A case-control study is characterized by all of the following except: [ONE POINT]
a. It is relatively inexpensive compared with most other epidemiologic study designs
b. Incidence rates may be computed directly
c. Patients with the disease (cases) are compared with persons without the disease (controls)
d. Assessment of past exposure may be biased
e. Definition of cases may be difficult

Questions 3 refer to the following information:

OUTCOME AFTER 15 YRS

At Beginning of Study CHD Developed CHD Did Not Develop

2,000 Healthy smokers 70 1,930

4,000 Healthy nonsmokers 35 3,965

The results of a 15-year cohort study of smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) are shown in the table above [TWO POINTS]:

3. What is the incidence of CHD in smokers that can be attributed to smoking is: ___

4. Which of the following is a case-control study? [TWO POINTS]

a. Obtaining histories and other information from a group of known cases and from a comparison group to determine the relative frequency of a characteristic or

exposure under study
b. Study of past mortality or morbidity trends to permit estimates of the occurrence of disease in the future
c. Study of the incidence of cancer in men who have quit smoking
d. Analysis of previous research in different places and under different circumstances to permit the establishment of hypotheses based on cumulative knowledge of all

known factors
e. Both aand b

5. The study investigated the risk of heart disease by smoking status and found that the risk ratio is 3.5. Using your own words, interpret the risk ratio of 3.5.

[ONE POINT]

6. Several studies have found that approximately 90% of cases of lung cancer are due to cigarette smoking. This measure is an example of: [TWO POINT]
a. A relative risk
b.A prevalence risk
c. A proportionate mortality ratio
d. An attributable risk
e. An incidence rate

7. An advertisement in a medical journal stated that 2,000 subjects with sore throats were treated with our new medicine. Within 4 days, 94% were asymptomatic.

The advertisement claims that the medicine was effective. Based on the evidence given above, the claim: [ONE POINT]
a. Is correct
b. May be incorrect because the conclusion is not based on a rate
c. May be incorrect because of failure to recognize a long-term cohort phenomenon
d. May be incorrect because no test of statistical significance was used
e. May be incorrect because no control or comparison group was involved


 


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