1. Which of the following statements regarding the nature of stress is true? A. Psychophysiological disorders are primarily mental disorders. B. Cataclysmic events such as earthquakes are, inevitably, the most devastating stressors for most people. C. Accumulating hassles may well lead to a sudden onset of PTSD. D. Continued exposure to stress is associated with the secretion of stress-related hormones. 2. The foot-in-the-door technique and the that’s-not-all technique are persuasive tactics for gaining A. obedience. B. conformity. C. reciprocity. D. compliance. 3. In hearing a persuasive message, some people will evaluate it in terms of factors that have nothing to do with the content of the message. When this happens, psychologists speak of _______ route processing. A. incidental B. inductive C. peripheral D. central 4. In respect to the foundations of prejudice, social identity theory is associated with the concept of A. ethnocentrism. B. modern racism. C. stereotypical discrimination. D. self-fulfilling prophecy. 5. Jason and Julia are preparing for a quiz in Psychology 101. Jason recites four reasons for seeking out a social support network. Julia, who has top grades in the class, gives her nod of approval to all but one of Jason’s list. Which one is she most likely to reject? A. Being in a social support network helps a person learn how to win arguments. B. Being a member of a social support network can help reduce a person’s stress levels. C. Support group membership can help a participant feel valued by others. D. Group members can help a participant with practical things like finding a new job. 6. On first meeting Ian Campbell from Edinburgh, Clark Mason, a native of Seattle, immediately decides that he and Ian have similar attitudes, feelings, and worldviews. Psychologists say this sort of thing illustrates the A. assumed-similarity bias. B. self-serving bias. C. fundamental attribution error. D. “birds of a feather” error. 7. Sternberg’s model of the kinds of love identifies which of the following basic components? A. Consummate attraction B. Sexuality C. Spirituality D. Commitment/decision 8. In the “teacher-learner” experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram, ______ percent of the experimental subjects eventually applied the “lethal” 450-volt shock to the “learner.” A. 65 B. 15 C. 35 D. 2 9. With respect to the theory of cognitive dissonance, people can hold contradictory ideas in their minds. If you become aware of the dissonance between two ideas, you could pursue which of the following strategies to reduce the dissonance? A. You can modify your views of the two contradictory ideas. B. You can change the way you perceive the ideas by decreasing the importance of one of them. C. You can tell yourself that the contradictory ideas are contradictory. D. You can repress one of the cognitions into your unconscious mind and go about your day. 10. Which of the following statements best illustrates the concept of the halo effect? A. Grenville maintains that Hannibal’s faults lie not with the stars but within his character. B. On first meeting Sally, Harry recognized that he and Sally were like two peas in a pod. C. After Clark missed the foul shot, Coach Smart told him to try practicing for a change. D. Observing that Lois is argumentative and abrasive, Leopold assumes she is a skilled liar. 11. The last stage in the GAS model of stress is A. resistance. B. exhaustion. C. adaptation. D. flight or fight. 12. Two psychology students are in a heated discussion about the nature of prejudice. Mavis insists that that when people get their identity from membership in a political action group, they will generally express ethnocentrism. Martin argues that with or without ethnocentrism, social identity based in group membership is inevitably associated with the demonization of minority groups. Who is correct? A. Both Mavis and Martin are correct. B. Mavis is correct. C. Martin is correct. D. Neither Mavis nor Martin is correct. 13. As discussed in your textbook, the Implicit Association Test (IAT) A. requires subjects to react to a series of black and white faces. B. is based on a culture-free questionnaire. C. requires people to openly express and reveal their latent prejudices. D. has revealed that most people aren’t prejudiced. 14. In the context of social cognition, what is the primary importance of schemas? A. They help us organize, store, and recall information about other people. B. They allow us to correctly identify the central traits of other people. C. They help us differentiate good people from bad people. D. They provide accurate and truthful information about social situations and other people. 15. Which of the following statements regarding stereotypes and prejudice is true? A. Where there are stereotypes we always find prejudice. B. Discrimination is to action as prejudice is to attitudes. C. Stereotypes may be positive or negative. D. A self-fulfilling prophecy always precedes prejudice. 16. A popular talk show host, jovial and sharp-witted as usual, outlines his views on the death penalty, taking time to consider both sides of the issue. As a long-time listener to that talk show, if you’re swayed to adopt the talk-show host’s point of view, it will probably be due to A. the character of the message. B. your tendency to employ peripheral route processing. C. the medium of the message (radio). D. your temperament and character. 17. Aggressiveness builds up in people because of human nature. It can be safely expressed before it reaches a “boiling point” through the catharsis offered by aggressive sports and games. These kinds of ideas are associated with A. instinct approaches to aggression. B. observational learning theories. C. frustration-aggression theory. D. social learning theories. 18. The first stage in the GAS model of stress is A. analyzing a stressor. End of exam B. resistance. C. alarm and mobilization. D. adaptation. 19. Particular factors encourage people to be drawn into liking one another. In this context, the reciprocity of liking effect is primarily associated with A. similarity. B. physical attractiveness. C. propinquity. D. exposure. 20. In general, the approach to stress embraced by psychoneuroimmunologists focuses on A. the brain and the body. B. the brain and the immune system. C. psychological factors and the immune system. D. the outcomes of stress.